Biology Final Proyect – Urinary System



The kidneys are important organs with many functions in the body, including producing hormones, absorbing minerals, and filtering blood and producing urine. They reside against the back muscles in the upper abdominal cavity. The right kidney sits a little bit lower than the left to accommodate the liver.
The ureters are muscular tubes which connect the kidneys to the bladder. There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. The upper half of the ureter is located in the abdomen and the lower half is located in the pelvic area.
The bladder is an essential organ from the urinary system and the main function is to store urine that is produced by the kidneys and excrete it from the body. Urine produced by the kidneys flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, where is it stored before passing into the urethra and exiting the body. The urinary bladder plays an important role in delaying and controlling urination so that the average person only has to urinate several times each day instead of constantly leaking small amounts of urine.
The urethra is a tube responsible for allowing urine to leave the body as it empties from the bladder, however in male and female are different. In the female urethra is much shorter than its male counterpart. Moreover, the male urethra also carries semen and sperm out of the body during sexual acts. The male urethra is much longer than that of the female.
The renal veins:
Renal veins carry deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys. Renal veins separate into two parts as the blood vessel enters the left and right kidney. These veins branch off the inferior vena cava, one of the major blood vessels in the human body.
The Renal Arteries:
The renal artery is one of two blood vessels that leads off from the abdominal aorta to the kidney. This blood comes directly from the heart and is sent to the kidneys to be filtered before it passes through the rest of the body.
Inferior vena cava:
The inferior vena cava is the largest vein in the human body. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Abdominal Aorta:
The aorta supplies the blood that is being filtered by the kidneys. Also, is the largest artery in the abdomen that provides blood to the organs and tissues of the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. It descends from the thorax as a continuation of the thoracic aorta and branches several times to form the major arteries of the abdomen.

Final Process Work;
Finally, to complete the project of Biology, we have to do a model based on the Urinary System including the following organs which belong to this system;
Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, Renal Arteries, Renal Veins, Inferior Vena Cava and the Abdominal Aorta.
First of all, to start with we used a white cardboard for the background and two others, one red (abdominal aorta) and the other one blue ( the inferior vena cava). Then, we cut the colored cards to use them as the veins and we abolish a white sheet of paper for the bladder. After that, we used straws to represent the two ureters that connected from the kidneys to the bladder. Two cans for the kidneys.
In addition, we put all these ideas to build up the model and to finish it we have to label the organs we had mentioned before and described each of their functions.

This is our model. I worked with Alexis Stankiewich

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